Rawlins County (standard abbreviation: RA) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 2,519. The largest city and county seat is Atwood. It was named after Union Civil War General John Aaron Rawlins.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,070 square miles (2,800 km), of which 1,069 square miles (2,770 km) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.52 km) (0.1%) is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,966 people, 1,269 households, and 846 families residing in the county. The population density was 3 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 1,565 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.52% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.07% from other races, and 0.71% from two or more races. 0.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,269 households out of which 27.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 4.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.30% were non-families. 31.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 3.80% from 18 to 24, 21.50% from 25 to 44, 25.10% from 45 to 64, and 25.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 99.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $32,105, and the median income for a family was $40,074. Males had a median income of $26,719 versus $19,750 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,161. About 7.90% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 8.90% of those age 65 or over.