Medicine Lodge is the most populous city in and the county seat of Barber County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,009.
Medicine Lodge is located at 37°17′4″N 98°34′52″W / 37.28444°N 98.58111°W / 37.28444; -98.58111 (37.284352, -98.580977) in south-central Kansas in the Red Hills region of the Great Plains. The city sits immediately north of the confluence of the Medicine Lodge River and Elm Creek. The city is on the northeast side of the river. Elm Creek flows south around the eastern and southern sides of the city. A tributary of Elm Creek, which flows south through Medicine Lodge, has been dammed immediately north of the city to form a reservoir, Barber County State Lake.
The city is located at the junction of U.S. Routes 160 and 281.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.21 square miles (3.13 km), all of it land.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,009 people, 876 households, and 530 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,660.3 inhabitants per square mile (641.0/km). There were 1,031 housing units at an average density of 852.1 per square mile (329.0/km). The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 1.4% from other races, and 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population.
There were 876 households of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.5% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93.
The median age in the city was 40 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.4% were from 25 to 44; 27.3% were from 45 to 64; and 17.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 50.7% male and 49.3% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,193 people, 922 households, and 609 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,823.7 people per square mile (705.6/km²). There were 1,085 housing units at an average density of 902.3 per square mile (349.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.08% White, 0.36% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.36% from other races, and 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.69% of the population.
There were 922 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.9% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 20.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,262, and the median income for a family was $41,053. Males had a median income of $30,319 versus $18,750 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,231. About 7.4% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.7% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over.