Chautauqua County (county code CQ) is a county located in Southeast Kansas. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 3,669. Its county seat and most populous city is Sedan. Chautauqua County is named for Chautauqua County, New York, the birthplace of Edward Jaquins, a Kansas politician who was instrumental in getting the county established.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 645 square miles (1,670 km), of which 639 square miles (1,660 km) is land and 5.9 square miles (15 km) (0.9%) is water.
As of the 2000 census, there were 4,359 people, 1,796 households, and 1,235 families residing in the county. The population density was 7 people per square mile (3/km²). There were 2,169 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 93.83% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 3.58% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, and 1.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.35% of the population.
There were 1,796 households out of which 26.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.20% were non-families. 29.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.87.
In the county, the population was spread out with 23.40% under the age of 18, 6.10% from 18 to 24, 20.90% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, and 24.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $28,717, and the median income for a family was $33,871. Males had a median income of $25,083 versus $21,346 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,280. About 9.00% of families and 12.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.80% of those under age 18 and 10.60% of those age 65 or over.